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Reliability and availability are also good. On the downside, 4G LTE technology is associated with high costs—several dollars or more for a module compared to less than a dollar for Wi-Fi. Cellular connectivity also has high power-consumption requirements, making it less than ideal for IoT applications, where battery life should extend over multiple years.

Companies can deploy 4G LTE connectivity over public or private networks. Public networks use the same connectivity infrastructure as mobile phones, while private networks segregate devices into a separate system by sublicensing unused frequencies from mobile operators with enterprise-owned infrastructure. Some companies in our analysis managed private networks, but most lacked the necessary capabilities and budget.

This will also be the case within the wider population. This connectivity option includes satellite and other microwave technologies. IoT stakeholders generally use it only when cellular and fiber options are not feasible, since it has the highest costs. For instance, organizations within national defense may use satellite connectivity for unmanned drones.

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Extraterrestrial options have low-to-medium bandwidth, high range, and medium-to-high reliability and availability. Only a few industries rely on extraterrestrial connectivity for IoT apps. While no connectivity solution is perfect, we were able to determine the most appropriate options for each industry by identifying the likely use cases in each sector.

Many of these involved cost reduction and productivity improvement. For instance, companies in many industries value IoT solutions that reduce machine downtime by providing predictive maintenance, as well as those that give them better visibility into the supply chain and eliminate bottlenecks.

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That could increase both the volume and value of IoT. Our research showed that connectivity requirements often varied by industry, even when the potential use cases were identical Exhibit 2. For instance, predictive maintenance and operations optimization are potential IoT use cases for manufacturing, mining, construction, and oil and gas.

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Range and reliability requirements varied by industry, however, as did the willingness and ability to manage networks. After identifying the likely use cases and associated requirements, we determined what connectivity solutions are likely to gain traction in each industry over the next five years Exhibit 3.

We believe that many companies will switch from unlicensed technologies to LPWA as it becomes more widely available, because it better meets their connectivity requirements. Consider mining. Companies in many other industries, including agriculture and manufacturing, may also shift from unlicensed technologies to LPWA. In fact, we could see a situation in which IoT grows in tandem with LPWA, since improved connectivity will increase both the number of IoT devices in use and the locations where they are used.

The highest cellular demand will involve public LTE networks, since private ones are costly to build and maintain. Satellite and other extraterrestrial communication solutions will continue to play a niche role, providing connectivity only in situations where cellular or fiber technologies are not feasible. Our analysis suggests that technology advances will not be the only force that determines which connectivity solutions become dominant.

In fact, the following business factors—including those over which IoT stakeholders have little control—may play an equally important role. Most device manufacturers that create industrial IoT solutions originally followed a pay-per-unit business model in which they charged a single fee for each device sold and made most of their income from long-term maintenance contracts.

This model inadvertently created a conflict of interest between customers, who wanted their devices to work uninterrupted, and manufacturers, who profited from servicing faulty devices. But this conflict may soon cease. Manufacturers are now transitioning to a device-as-a-service DaaS model in which they sell customers a subscription to their products. The subscription covers both the initial device purchase and later maintenance costs, which allows manufacturers to make money even if the products do not require service.

Connectivity wars

In fact, they have an incentive to keep their devices running, since service costs could reduce their revenues. To facilitate the DaaS model, manufacturers want connectivity solutions that allow them to connect, monitor, and perform updates remotely. Although IoT connectivity chipsets may be relatively inexpensive, companies may face additional costs to enable the solutions, including those for modules, retrofitting, and infrastructure. For instance, companies may pay less than a dollar for a Wi-Fi module, but they might need to purchase multiple access points, install wiring, and undertake system integration to enable connectivity—all costly endeavors.

If LPWA is an option in such circumstances, companies may favor it because their associated costs will be lower. Even connectivity technologies in the same category can have different associated costs, and this may determine what solution a company chooses. Consider the various LPWA options. While companies must build communication towers and purchase modules to deploy Sigfox connectivity, NB-IoT requires only a module purchase, since it can use existing cellular infrastructure.

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Some IoT connectivity solutions are easier to deploy because they have a strong ecosystem that supports their use. To read comments on each title, search ewgcya on and the title or author of the book. The summaries, below, are useful for collection development and readers advisory:. Set your calendar alarms and bring a friend.

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Join us for the next GalleyChat, Tues. It explores what happens when the eldest daughter disappears, and a series of family secrets emerge. Ayesha has had to set aside her dreams of being a poet for the practical job of teaching, which she hates. An engagement between Hafsah and Khalid takes both Ayesha and Khalid by surprise and has them wrestling with what exactly they want, and how they feel about each other. Hoang, Helen. DRC appeared shortly after it was mentioned on GalleyChat.


Join us for the next chat, Tues. These people read! Check your holds on the following soon to be released titles, one a debut and the other a second novel, a potential breakout. You may not be familiar with the author, whose first book, The Making of June , appeared 17 years ago. Join us for the next GalleyChat on Tuesday, Feb. Details here. All are now linked on our blogroll..

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Many of the authors are well-known, having won awards for their previous books, but several debuts receive multiple shoutouts:. A courtroom drama where each chapter reveals something new about the characters and changes my mind about who did it! It begins in , a few miles from Victoria Falls, in a small colonial settlement called The Old Drift. Free newsletter: the hottest new books, features and more. Parts of this site are only available to paying PW subscribers. Thank you for visiting Publishers Weekly. There are 3 possible reasons you were unable to login and get access our premium online pages.

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